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Due to historical and cultural reasons,
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Eastern Asian countries including Japan
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Korea Singapore and China (mainland China
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or Taiwan or Hong Kong or Macau) all
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emphasize the importance of foundations
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in students learning of mathematics. In
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mainland China, the principle of basic
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knowledge and basic skills or
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simply we call that Two Basics was
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explicitly put forward in the
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mathematics curriculum since the early
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1960s, and it is the most widely observed
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principle in Chinese mathematics
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classroom. According to researchers, the
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two basic principles is a broad and
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loose idea without a strict definition.
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Its general meaning is that in the
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two aspects of solid foundation and
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application and creativity. Although both
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are important, more important is the
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knowing well of basic knowledge and
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grasp of basic skills. The two basics
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principle is reflected in the following
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goals of mathematical education in
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Chinese mathematics classroom. First,
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fast and accurate calculation with
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four arithmetic operations,
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involving integers decimals and fractions
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and so on and memorization of the
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algorithm. Primary school students can
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correctly finish 10 questions per
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minute for addition and subtraction
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involving numbers up to 100. Second,
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fast and accurate manipulation on polynomial
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expressions, algebraic fractions,
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exponential and radical expressions and
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memorization of the rules. Third,
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accurate memorization of definitions
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and formulas. The formula for finding the
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roots of quadratic equations, and
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definitions and properties of curves of
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the second order trigonometric formulas,
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and the formulas for changing
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the base in algorithms so and so forth.
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That's mainly in secondary. Fourth, logical
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and formal expressions of mathematical
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concepts noting the logical accuracy of
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categorization in mathematics
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propositions. Fifths, the reasoning in
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solution process should confirm to
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rigorous logical rules with sufficient
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reason and being expressed in a clear
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and formal manner. Sixth, familiarity with
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solution patterns, memorizing certain
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basic solution patterns and use them on
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similar problems through fast
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imitating and transferring. Speed or
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efficiency play a key role in problem
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solving of Chinese students. So those six
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goals above the bottom line for
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mathematics teaching in Chinese
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mathematics classroom. All teachers must
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remind themselves all the time that
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the students are required to meet those targets.
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Of course it's in Chinese
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classroom and teachers must first
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meets those targets themselves. In
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primary
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school mathematics classroom,
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Two Basics are more of the following aspects. First,
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fast and accurate calculation with the
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four arithmetic operations, addition
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subtraction, multiplication and division
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involving integers decimals and fractions
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etc. Second, accurate memorization
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of definitions and formulas, for example
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for finding the area of a triangle. And
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the third, familiarity with solution
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methods and patterns.